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Udice appropriate protein folding. As a result, the only typical instance of a covalent cross-link amongst protein side chains will be the disulfide bond, which types only in an appropriate redox environment when two Cys residues are brought together by protein folding. Nonetheless, some surprising examples of unexpected crosslinks have been brought to light by protein structure evaluation or by the observation of uncommon spectroscopic or biophysical properties. Examples include the Cys-Tyr bond in galactose oxidase (1), which delivers a radical center; related bonds in some catalases (2); the His-Tyr bond in cytochrome C oxidase (three); plus the exceptional chromophore of GFP (4). These, as well as other examples, arise by way of intramolecular reactions facilitated by certain regional environments. The recent discovery of isopeptide bonds joining Lys and Asn side chains in the proteins that make up pili on the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (5), as well as on other Gram-positive pathogens (six), has highlighted a class of proteins in which intramolecular cross-links appear to be remarkably prevalent.Xylan Autophagy It consists of not simply Gram-positive pili but a number of other cell surface adhesins, called microbial surface elements recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) (7).Fluo-4 AM Fluorescent Dye Examples of your latter consist of the collagen-binding A domain and repetitive B domains in the Staphylococcus aureus collagen-binding surface protein Cna (8, 9), the fibronectin-binding protein FbaB fromwww.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.ASee Commentary on web page 1229.To whom correspondence could be addressed. E-mail: [email protected] or ted. [email protected] article consists of supporting details on-line at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:ten.PMID:35567400 1073/pnas.1316855111/-/DCSupplemental.PNAS | January 28, 2014 | vol. 111 | no. four | 1367BIOCHEMISTRYData deposition: The atomic coordinates and structure aspects have been deposited inside the Protein Information Bank, www.pdb.org (PDB ID codes 4NI6 and 4MKM).SEE COMMENTARYthe C with the Asn/Asp, aided by proton transfer through an adjacent Glu or Asp. The latter also polarizes the C = O bond in the Asn or Asp side chain, resulting within a partial constructive charge on C (ten, 14). That is basically a one-turnover autocatalytic reaction dependent on the polarity from the atmosphere plus the proximity of your reacting groups. So far, the bonds are found in just two forms of Ig-like domain, labeled CnaB and CnaA, and seem in characteristic positions in each and every (14). In an effort to discover how prevalent intramolecular isopeptide bonds are in bacterial cell surface proteins, we carried out a bioinformatic evaluation of one hundred sequences for putative cell wall-anchored proteins (identified by their LPXTG motifs) from a number of Gram-positive organisms, in search of prospective MSCRAMMs. Amongst these was a putative surface-anchored protein from Clostridium perfringens (GenBank accession no. EDT23863.1), which we refer to as Cpe0147 in the following discussion. This protein has an N-terminal domain that resembles, in the sequence level, the thioester-containing adhesin domain from S. pyogenes pili (15). This domain is followed by a series of repetitive domains of 150 residues every that share remarkably higher sequence similarity, greater than 85 identity between any pair of domains. Mass spectral analysis of a two-domain fragment showed a loss of 34 Da in the anticipated molecular mass, suggesting the formation of two isopeptide bonds (a loss of 2 17 Da), but no sequence pattern characteris.