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P of MS sufferers treated with fingolimod. Consent Since the patient couldn’t move his hands smoothly, written informed consent was obtained from the patient’s mother for publication of this case report and accompanying pictures. A copy on the written consent is available for assessment by the Editor of this journal.Ethics approvalApproval for this work was obtained from the Hakuaikai Ethics Committee of Kyoto, Japan.Ueda and Saida BMC Ophthalmology (2015) 15:Page 5 ofAbbreviations RRMS: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis; ME: Macular edema; FAME: Fingolimod-associated macular edema; EDSS: Expanded Disability Score Scale; SD-OCT: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography; MS: Numerous sclerosis; S1P: Sphingosine-1-phospate. Competing interests The authors declare that they’ve no competing interests. Authors’ contributions Both authors, NU and KS, had complete access for the data, and study and authorized the final manuscript. Each authors had been responsible for information collection. As the ophthalmologist, NU treated the patient, developed this study, drafted the manuscript and reviewed the literature. As the neurologist, KS also treated the patient and participated within the design and style in the study, overview in the literature, and assessment in the manuscript. Acknowledgements The authors thank Dr. Takahiko Saida and Dr. Masami Paku for assistance in the writing from the manuscript. We did not have any funding for this perform. Author particulars 1 Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Hakuaikai Hospital, 1 Keshiyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8041, Japan. 2Department of Neurology, Kyoto Hakuaikai Hospital, 1 Keshiyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8041, Japan. Received: 22 June 2015 Accepted: 9 OctoberReferences 1. Melanie DW, David EJ, Myla DG. Overview and security of fingolimod hydrochloride use in individuals with various sclerosis.IL-15, Human (His) Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014;13:9898. two. Bhatti MT, Freedman SM, Mahmoud TH. Fingolimod therapy and macular hemorrhage. J Neuroophthalmol. 2013;33:370. three. Jain N, Bhatti MT. Fingolimod-associated macular edema: incidence, detection and management. Neurology. 2012;78:6720. 4. Lightman S, McDonald WI, Bird AC, Francis DA, Hoskins A, Batchelor JR, et al. Retinal venous sheathing in optic neuritis: its significance for the pathogenesis of numerous sclerosis. Brain. 1987;110:4054. five. Gelfand JM, Nolan R, Schwartz DM, Graves J, Green AJ. Microcystic macular oedema in many sclerosis is connected with illness severity. Brain. 2012;135:17863. six. Zarbin MA, Jampol LM, Jager RD, Reder AT, Francis G, Collins W, et al. Ophthalmic evaluations in clinical research of fingolimod (FTY720) in multiple sclerosis.MAdCAM1 Protein Synonyms Ophthalmology.PMID:33679749 2013;120:1432.Submit your subsequent manuscript to BioMed Central and take full advantage of:Convenient on the web submission Thorough peer critique No space constraints or color figure charges Instant publication on acceptance Inclusion in PubMed, CAS, Scopus and Google Scholar Investigation which is freely available for redistributionSubmit your manuscript at biomedcentral.com/submit
Clinicians treating older adults for depression are frequently faced with treatment resistant situations, as late-life depression (LLD) often will not respond to first-line pharmacotherapy (1). Failure to respond to an adequate antidepressant pharmacotherapy trial has been linked with decrease remission rates in depressed sufferers across the lifespan with numerous therapy modalities(two). Interestingly, patients that have been treated with an inadequate dose or duration of ant.