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Lin resistance pathway [47]. Hence, EtP remedy could influence insulin sensitivity; on the other hand
Lin resistance pathway [47]. Therefore, EtP remedy might influence insulin sensitivity; nonetheless, the fact that we did not measure insulin resistance is the principal limitation in the existing study. 5. Conclusions EtP is applied as a meals additive (JECFA No. 938) [48], thus the impact of its consumption might be of practical value. Inside the present study, HFD elevated skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzymes activities, but EtP supplementation was without the need of effect. Having said that, EtP induced modifications in SOL muscle, which had been connected to an increase of plasma insulin concentration. Future research should really focus around the impact of EtP supplementation on glucose and insulin tolerance tests and analysis of pancreatic beta cells. Acknowledgments This function was supported by a grant from the Polish Ministry of Science and Greater Education (N N404 167434). Conflict of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. 2. 3. Johannsen, D.L.; Ravussin, E. The role of mitochondria in overall health and disease. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 2009, 9, 78086. Parise, G.; de Lisio, M. Mitochondrial theory of aging in human age-related sarcopenia. Interdiscip. Top. Gerontol. 2010, 37, 14256. Iossa, S.; Lionetti, L.; Mollica, M.P.; Crescenzo, R.; Botta, M.; Barletta, A.; Liverini, G. Effect of high-fat feeding on metabolic efficiency and mitochondrial oxidative capacity in adult rats. Br. J. Nutr. 2003, 90, 95360. Chanseaume, E.; Malpuech-Brugere, C.; Patrac, V.; Bielicki, G.; Rousset, P.; Couturier, K.; Salles, J.; Renou, J.P.; Boirie, Y.; Morio, B. Diets high in sugar, fat, and energy induce muscle type-specific adaptations in mitochondrial functions in rats. J. Nutr. 2006, 136, 2194200. Lionetti, L.; Mollica, M.P.; Crescenzo, R.; D’Andrea, E.; Ferraro, M.; Bianco, F.; Liverini, G.; Iossa, S. Skeletal muscle subsarcolemmal mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat fed rats exhibiting impaired glucose homeostasis. Int. J. Obes. (Lond.) 2007, 31, 1596604. Chanseaume, E.; Tardy, A.L.; Salles, J.; Giraudet, C.; Rousset, P.; Tissandier, A.; Boirie, Y.; Morio, B. Chronological method of diet-induced alterations in muscle mitochondrial functions in rats. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007, 15, 509.four.5.six.Nutrients 2013, five 7.eight.9.10. 11.12. 13. 14. 15.16.17.18. 19. 20.Takada, S.; Kinugawa, S.; Hirabayashi, K.; Suga, T.; Yokota, T.; Takahashi, M.; IL-17A Protein Species Fukushima, A.; Homma, T.; Ono, T.; Sobirin, M.A.; et al. Angiotensin II receptor blocker improves the lowered exercising capacity and impaired mitochondrial function on the skeletal muscle in kind two diabetic mice. J. Appl. Physiol. 2013, 114, 84457. Yokota, T.; Kinugawa, S.; Hirabayashi, K.; Matsushima, S.; Inoue, N.; Ohta, Y.; Hamaguchi, S.; Sobirin, M.A.; Ono, T.; Suga, T.; et al. Oxidative strain in skeletal muscle impairs mitochondrial respiration and limits workout capacity in sort 2 diabetic mice. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2009, 297, H1069 1077. Yuzefovych, L.V.; Musiyenko, S.I.; Wilson, G.L.; Rachek, L.I. Mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction, and oxidative anxiety are linked with endoplasmic reticulum tension, protein degradation and apoptosis in high fat diet-induced insulin resistance mice. PLoS One 2013, 8, e54059, doi:10.1371journal.pone.0054059. St Pierre, J.; Buckingham, J.A.; Roebuck, S.J.; Brand, M.D. Topology of superoxide production from various Wnt4 Protein web web-sites within the mitochondrial electron transport chain. J. Biol. Chem. 2002, 277, 447844790. Barazzoni, R.; Zanetti, M.; Cappellari, G.G.; Semolic, A.; Boschelle, M.;.