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“serine-type peptidase activity” had been one of the most enriched MF terms; and “chloroplast”, “thylakoid”, andInt. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23,10 of”plastid” had been essentially the most enriched CC terms. Additional KEGG enrichment evaluation revealed that “ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes”, “plant hormone signal transduction”, “benzoxazinoid biosynthesis”, “alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism”, and “limonene and pinene degradation” have been one of the most overrepresented pathways in the up-regulated DEGs (Figure 12A), and “photosynthesis”, “photosynthesis-antenna proteins”, “carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms”, “phenylalanine metabolism”, “flavonoid biosynthesis”, “porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism”, “ubiquinone along with other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis”, “starch and sucrose metabolism”, and “carbon metabolism” had been the most overrepresented pathways inside the down-regulated DEGs (Figure 12B). These benefits indicated that the expression level of genes connected to protein metabolic and hormone signaling, which have been increased in the dnl2 mutant, along with the expression amount of genes associated to photosynthesis and cell wall biosynthesis had been suppressed.Figure 11. The drastically enriched GO terms of the up-regulated and down-regulated DEGs in between dnl2 plus the wild-type. (A) The enriched BP, MF, and CC terms from the up-regulated DEGs. (B) The enriched BP, MF, and CC terms of your down-regulated DEGs.Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23,11 ofFigure 12. Enriched Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment of DEGs in between dnl2 along with the wild-type. Enriched KEGG pathways of up-regulated DEGs (A) and down-regulated DEGs (B) in dnl2 compared with the wild-type. The point size represents the amount of genes inside the pathway; the colour depth indicates the q-value.2.eight. Altered Expression of Hormone Pathway-Related Genes in the dnl2 Mutant Phytohormones play a vital role in cell elongation and plant growth. In our RNA-seq results, a lot more than one hundred DEGs related to IAA, GA, ABA, ETH, BR, and jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signal transduction were identified. Notably, 35 genes involved in auxin biosynthesis and signaling were differentially expressed among dnl2 plus the wildtype plants (Figure 13A and Table S3). For IAA biosynthesis, a flavin monooxygenase-like protein (Zm00001d018652, YUC), which catalyzes the final step of conversion from H3 Receptor Agonist web indole3-pyruvate (IPyA) to IAA [44], was down-regulated by 2.75-fold in dnl2, although indole-3acetaldehyde oxidase (Zm00001d013098, AOX2), which converts indole-3-acetaldehyde (IAD) into IAA [45], was up-regulated by 2.35-fold in dnl2. Auxin response gene families, primarily which includes seven Aux/IAA (auxin/indole acetic acid), three GH3 (Gretchen Hagen 3), seven SAUR (compact auxin up RNA), 3 ARF (auxin response issue), and three PIN (polar auxin transport), exhibited altered expression levels in dnl2 [46,47]. Zm00001d010697 (GH3.six), Zm00001d039345 (GH3), and Zm00001d043244 (GH3.1) belong for the GH3 gene family, which participates in auxin homeostasis by catalyzing auxin Cathepsin L Inhibitor manufacturer conjugation and binding free of charge IAA to amino acids [48], and their expression levels have been enhanced by 2.8to 28.6-fold in dnl2. Zm00001d053004 (AIC2) is definitely an auxin transporter-like protein, and its expression level in dnl2 was decreased by 9.3-fold compared to the wild-type. The altered expression amount of these genes might disturb IAA homeostasis inside the dnl2 mutant. Gibberellins are crucial regulators of internode elongation and plant height. The DWARF1 (Zm00001d039634) encod