Mon. Jun 24th, 2024

Rayfinned fishes these are mostly the inhabitants of freshwater ecosystem representing 116 species in 16 genera with diverse distribution throughout Africa and Asia (https://www.fishbase.in/search.php, accessed on 07 March 2020). The walking catfish Clarias magur (Hamilton, 1822), one of the 116 valid species of family Clariidae, is usually a freshwater catfish popularly referred to as magur.1,2 The C. magur was differentiated from Clarius batrachus by Ng and Kottelat3 primarily based on deeply serrated pectoral spine and the distinction inside the head shape. This was also genetically differentiated with Indian Clariids primarily based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences.1 The species is preferred for superior taste along with a worthwhile supply of dietary protein plus the increase in demand for the fish led to enormous over exploitation. Its culture has gained priority amongst the catfishes in India and adjacent countries viz. Bangladesh and Nepal on account of striking therapeutic and nutritional attributes, but couldn’t achieve momentum because of the complex captive breeding behaviour. It really is categorized as an endangered (A3cde 4acde) species as per IUCN Red List (https://www. iucnredlist.org/species/ 168255/6470089, accessed on 07 March 2020). Magur belongs towards the group in the amphibious air-breathing catfish which are adapted to inhabit muddy marsh, swamp areas and also transit to terrestrial habitat for short duration4,five in search of water. Therefore, the species frequently experiences hypoxia, which gets aggravated because of water deficit throughout the summer time season. The fish can survive both in water and land habitats since it has innate characters and the underlying molecular pathways to face the challenges of each the habitats. The life is supposed to possess originated from aquatic habitat, the transition to terrestrial habitat was regarded as to be a massive leap in biological evolution. For this habitat transition, the PAK list radical changes in biological processes took place in the course of millions of years of evolution. To cope up with two unique habitats, amphibious fishes underwent adaptation that may have integrated perception, olfaction, aerial respiration, terrestrial locomotion, immunological evolution, higher ammonia tolerance, modification of aerial vision, ionic balance, osmoregulation, detoxification of xenobiotic compounds, and so forth.6,7 For terrestrial locomotion, magur makes use of pectoral fins for snake-like movement. In addition, it possesses dual breathing adaptation to survive even in water with low dissolved oxygen (DO) and air. The accessory respiratory organ in C. magur comprises supra-branchial chambers, the fan or gill plates and also the respiratory tree.8,9 Different Clarias species were reported to produce mucus on their skin surface to defend against microorganism and to prevent water loss throughout land migration.102 The PDE11 review epidermal mucus of C. magur possesses a broad spectrum of antibacterial properties and helps to stop colonization by parasites and fungi.13 Magur can also be reported to be a facultative ureotelic that utilizes urea cycle to convert the damaging ammonia to urea for the duration of terrestrial adaptation.14 Comparative genomics and evolutionary evaluation of chosen traits can offer the understanding on the pathways or mechanisms accountable for fish ecology and adaptation.Inside the present study, we generated a draft genome of C. magur by way of assembly of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data from various sequencing platforms and completely analysed, which gave a extensive insight on environm.