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Y of Microbiology, Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedali Riuniti “Villa Sofia-V. Cervello”, 90146 Palermo, Italy; [email protected] Correspondence: pulvirenti87@gmailCitation: Pulvirenti, J.; Musso, M.; Fasciana, T.; Cascio, A.; Tricoli, M.R.; Oliveri, N.; Favar M.; Diquattro, O.; Giammanco, A. TransfusionTransmitted Malaria of Plasmodium malariae in Palermo, Sicily. Healthcare 2021, 9, 1558. 10.3390/JX401 MAPK/ERK Pathway healthcare9111558 Academic 3MB-PP1 supplier Editors: Maria Dolores Masia and Marco Dettori Received: 21 October 2021 Accepted: 11 November 2021 Published: 16 NovemberAbstract: Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) can be a uncommon occurrence with significant consequences for the recipient. In non-endemic regions, the incidence of transmission of malaria by transfusion is extremely low. We report a clinical case of transfusion-transmitted malaria due to Plasmodium malariae, which occurred inside a patient with acute hemorrhagic gastropathy. Case presentation: In April 2019, a 70-year-old Italian man with recurrent spiking fever for four days was diagnosed using a P. malariae infection, as confirmed employing microscopy and real-time PCR. The patient had in no way been abroad, but about two months just before, he had received a red blood cell transfusion for anemia. With regards to the donor, we revealed that they had been a missionary priest who typically went to tropical regions. Plasmodium spp. PCR was also employed on donor blood to confirm the causal link. Discussion and Conclusions: The donations of asymptomatic blood donors who’re predominantly “semi-immune” with very low parasitic loads are an issue. The key issue is associated with transfusion-transmitted malaria. Our case suggests that P. malariae infections in semi-immune asymptomatic donors are a threat to transfusion safety. Presently, microscopy is thought of the gold common for the diagnosis of malaria but has restricted sensitivity to detect low levels of parasitemia. Screening making use of serological tests and molecular tests, combined together with the donor’s questionnaire, really should be utilized to lessen the cases of TTM. Keywords: malaria; blood transfusion; blood donor screening; Plasmodium malariae; transfusiontransmitted malaria; thrombocytopenia; asymptomatic semi-immune donorsPublisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.1. Introduction Malaria is an infectious disease which is attributable to intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium spp.; it is responsible for an acute febrile illness with varying severities based on the species involved and on the subject’s immune status, but in addition on the approach of invasion and multiplication of the parasite in human red blood cells (RBCs) throughout their complex life cycle. Five species of Plasmodium spp. are at present identified to bring about malaria in humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium knowlesi. Malaria is located in tropical and subtropical regions exactly where malaria parasites are naturally transmitted by the infective bites of anopheles female mosquitoes in the course of their blood meal. In a lot of temperate areas, including Western Europe as well as the Usa, financial improvement and public wellness measures have succeeded in eliminating malaria. Nevertheless, the majority of these locations have anopheles’ mosquitoes that can transmit malaria along with the reintroduction with the disease is often a continual risk [1]. Just as because of theCopyright: 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This short article is definitely an op.