Sat. Feb 24th, 2024

Tat and downregulation of proapoptotic GSK (Carmel et al Aimone et al).In addition, it has been observed the upregulation at h of genes coding for different growth factors [transforming growth factor (TGF), plateletderived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor] and antiapoptotic proteins (survival of motor neurons proteins), which may contribute to prevent neural cell death (Song et al ).VASCULAR SYSTEM REGULATION AND ANGIOGENESISHemorrhage and other early vascular events are reflected in the expression profile.Blood coagulation genes platelet factor (CXCL), coagulation factors VIII, protein C, etc appear overexpressed in the first h after injury and some remain for several weeks (Chamankhah et al).Genes such as angiopoietin are increased in the injury area in the week that follows the damage (Aimone et al).Other dysregulated genes related to vascular events include HIG (hypoxiainduced gene), PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor 1 medchemexpress 5129948,5087319,4937542,4920254,4918342,4784023,4751821,4667797,4614279,4501484,4479401,4456838,4453243,4414636,4390092,4214299,4150620,4150261,4127340,4111593,3978347,3929867,3797469,3683634,3653845,3381938,3338980,3227963,3151125,3080214,2955683,2891600,2512331,2136391,1640004,1626561,1268797,1260604,1221796,1197454,1140906,1128415,1128395,1128334,1108674,1099171,1090967,989396,960878,917159,906885,868618,865708,848339,793305,789083,683116,665801,638462,636711,622433,593476,499965,477589,474825,391754,372839,181193,100711,38189,32149,7795″ title=View Abstract(s)”>PubMed ID:,16644668,12075913,10933485,10826665,9622623,9004058,8310852,8162841,7951646,7615481,7457166,7454885,7443883,7443876,7394066,7370485,7352540,7342107,7332893,7229502,7207162,7125003,6996456,6979539,6882991,6794696,6791606,6584937,6441351,6424837,6423703,6411158,6405633,6405416,6224396,6211131,6145536,6123407,5570417,5561070,5457452,5452362,5129948,5087319,4937542,4920254,4918342,4784023,4751821,4667797,4614279,4501484,4479401,4456838,4453243,4414636,4390092,4214299,4150620,4150261,4127340,4111593,3978347,3929867,3797469,3683634,3653845,3381938,3338980,3227963,3151125,3080214,2955683,2891600,2512331,2136391,1640004,1626561,1268797,1260604,1221796,1197454,1140906,1128415,1128395,1128334,1108674,1099171,1090967,989396,960878,917159,906885,868618,865708,848339,793305,789083,683116,665801,638462,636711,622433,593476,499965,477589,474825,391754,372839,181193,100711,38189,32149,7795 which is downregulated late after injury (Aimone et al).CHANGES IN GLIAL CELLSAlthough less explored in global profile studies, there are important changes in gene expression in the glial cells related to astrocyte reactivity and the formation of the glial scar, as well as to the proliferation and remyelination attempts of oligodendrocytes.Among the bestcharacterized genes related to astrocyte reactivity and glial scar formation are those coding for GFAP, vimentin, and nestin, intermediate filaments highly overexpressed in reactive astrocytes.These genes are markedly upregulated during the first week after injury (Carmel et al Wu et al).On the other hand, oligodendrocyte profiles are characterized by a decrease in cell specific genes due to the advance of oligodendrocyte death during the first weeks followed by an increase in proliferation and myelination genes (Wu et al).MicroRNA BIOGENESIS, FUNCTION, AND REGULATIONAs we have shown in the previous sections, SCI causes profound cellular changes that result from dysregulation of signaling pathways and structural proteins.Alteration of gene expression following SCI is likely accompanied by the posttranscriptional regulation of these modified gene networks.Among the known posttranscriptional regulators, microRNAshave recently attracted much attention due to their ability to inhibit mRNA translation.MicroRNAs were first identified in C.elegans in (Lee et al).A small noncoding RNA (lin) was shown to regulate translation of lin through RNA NA interaction.MicroRNAs constitute an abundant class of highly conserved small noncoding RNA molecules composed of nucleotides in length, that posttranscriptional regulate gene expression.More than mature forms of microRNA sequences have been identified in humans (miRBase; Kozomara and GriffithsJones,).MicroRNAs are transcribed from genomic DNA by RNA polymerase II or III in the form of large primary transcripts (primiRNAs) with functional secondary structures of stemloop hairpins.The stemloops structures are recognized and cleaved by the complex formed by the RNase III Drosha and the RNAbinding protein DGCR, which leads to liberation of a precursor microRNA (premiRNA).Once processed, exportin transports the premiRNAs from the nucleus to the cytosol, where an enzymatic complex containing Dicer process them to yield the to nucleotide duplex mature miRNAs.One strand (passenger) of the duplex is degraded and the other strand (guide) is integrated into a RNAinduced silencing complex (RISC), which facilitates the binding of the microRNAs to their target.