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Ons (Minisi et al. 1989) suggest that the larger the change in arterial pressure the more likely the activation of non-baroreflex responses. As a result, the full range of our data from baroreflex testing did not reach a high or low asymptote in each PD-148515 manufacturer animal, thus precluding sigmoid curve fitting analysis. Therefore, we applied linear regression to each limb of the reflex separately and uncovered significant changes only in reflex tachycardic responses in the nNOSshRNA treated animalsFigure 5. Western blot analysis showing decreased nNOS expression in rat NTS 2 weeks after AAV2nNOSshRNA injection The nNOS protein band (160 kDa, top blot) and the loading control band (GAPDH, 36 kDa, bottom blot) from the same blot analysis are indicated by the arrows on the right side of the blot.2012 The Authors. The Journal of PhysiologyC2012 The Physiological SocietyTable 3. Basal cardiovascular variables PBS (n = 6) MAP (mmHg) HR (beats min-1 ) 84.2 ?3.4 315.5 ?17.L.-H. Lin and othersJ Physiol 590.AAV2eGFP (n = 7) 88.1 ?1.7 318.4 ?6.AAV2cDNA (n = 7) 84.7 ?3.1 302.6 ?8.AAV2shRNA (n = 7) 92.6 ?2.4 302.4 ?7.There were no significant differences in MAP or HR between groups.when compared with any other group. Our observation suggests that it is important to assure adequate evaluation of each limb of baroreflex responsiveness to assure that full range regression (either linear or sigmoid curve fitting) is not being influenced by changes in only one limb. We recognize that others (Head McCarty, 1987) have used sigmoid curve fitting after logistic analysis to show changes in baroreflex slope when only the sympathetic or parasympathetic influences had been blocked while the same approach, when used by us, did not despite clear differences seen with linear regression analysis. It is not tenable that the changes we report with linear regression are due to shifts of the stimulus responses in that basal blood pressures did not differ and the only slopethat did differ was that representing largely sympathetic effects. Our findings raise the possibility that at the site of injection into NTS there are distinct cellular elements involved in processing the several autonomic components of baroreflex activity. Thus, the product of the endothelial and neuronal isoforms of NOS may have opposing TAPI-2MedChemExpress TAPI-2 effects, eNOS being inhibitory and nNOS being excitatory, on baroreflex function. Utilizing viral vectors and dominant negatives to suppress expression of eNOS, others have ascribed an inhibitory effect of NO?generated from eNOS. The eNOS effect was linked to angiotensin in NTS and to suppression of the baroreflex (Paton et al. 2001) and was presumed to be tonic in that dominant negative suppression of eNOS inFigure 6. Reflex increases (upper left hand part of regression curves) in heart rate (HR, ordinate) in response to decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP, abscissa) produced by infusion of nitroprusside are significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated in animals treated with nNOSshRNA (shRNA; r = -0.52) when compared with those seen in animals treated with PBS (r = -1.69), AAV2eGFP (eGFP; r = -1.50), or AAV2nNOScDNA (cDNA; r = -1.63) while reflex decreases (lower right hand part of regression curves) in HR in response to increases in MAP produced by infusion of phenylephrine do not differ between groups Slopes ( HR/ MAP) for the tachycardic and bradycardic reflex responses are shown graphically in the bar graph insert at the lower left hand corner with data expressed as means ?SEM.Ons (Minisi et al. 1989) suggest that the larger the change in arterial pressure the more likely the activation of non-baroreflex responses. As a result, the full range of our data from baroreflex testing did not reach a high or low asymptote in each animal, thus precluding sigmoid curve fitting analysis. Therefore, we applied linear regression to each limb of the reflex separately and uncovered significant changes only in reflex tachycardic responses in the nNOSshRNA treated animalsFigure 5. Western blot analysis showing decreased nNOS expression in rat NTS 2 weeks after AAV2nNOSshRNA injection The nNOS protein band (160 kDa, top blot) and the loading control band (GAPDH, 36 kDa, bottom blot) from the same blot analysis are indicated by the arrows on the right side of the blot.2012 The Authors. The Journal of PhysiologyC2012 The Physiological SocietyTable 3. Basal cardiovascular variables PBS (n = 6) MAP (mmHg) HR (beats min-1 ) 84.2 ?3.4 315.5 ?17.L.-H. Lin and othersJ Physiol 590.AAV2eGFP (n = 7) 88.1 ?1.7 318.4 ?6.AAV2cDNA (n = 7) 84.7 ?3.1 302.6 ?8.AAV2shRNA (n = 7) 92.6 ?2.4 302.4 ?7.There were no significant differences in MAP or HR between groups.when compared with any other group. Our observation suggests that it is important to assure adequate evaluation of each limb of baroreflex responsiveness to assure that full range regression (either linear or sigmoid curve fitting) is not being influenced by changes in only one limb. We recognize that others (Head McCarty, 1987) have used sigmoid curve fitting after logistic analysis to show changes in baroreflex slope when only the sympathetic or parasympathetic influences had been blocked while the same approach, when used by us, did not despite clear differences seen with linear regression analysis. It is not tenable that the changes we report with linear regression are due to shifts of the stimulus responses in that basal blood pressures did not differ and the only slopethat did differ was that representing largely sympathetic effects. Our findings raise the possibility that at the site of injection into NTS there are distinct cellular elements involved in processing the several autonomic components of baroreflex activity. Thus, the product of the endothelial and neuronal isoforms of NOS may have opposing effects, eNOS being inhibitory and nNOS being excitatory, on baroreflex function. Utilizing viral vectors and dominant negatives to suppress expression of eNOS, others have ascribed an inhibitory effect of NO?generated from eNOS. The eNOS effect was linked to angiotensin in NTS and to suppression of the baroreflex (Paton et al. 2001) and was presumed to be tonic in that dominant negative suppression of eNOS inFigure 6. Reflex increases (upper left hand part of regression curves) in heart rate (HR, ordinate) in response to decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP, abscissa) produced by infusion of nitroprusside are significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated in animals treated with nNOSshRNA (shRNA; r = -0.52) when compared with those seen in animals treated with PBS (r = -1.69), AAV2eGFP (eGFP; r = -1.50), or AAV2nNOScDNA (cDNA; r = -1.63) while reflex decreases (lower right hand part of regression curves) in HR in response to increases in MAP produced by infusion of phenylephrine do not differ between groups Slopes ( HR/ MAP) for the tachycardic and bradycardic reflex responses are shown graphically in the bar graph insert at the lower left hand corner with data expressed as means ?SEM.