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Nderwood et al., 2009; Vaillancourt et al., 2007). Children with separated or divorced parents engage in elevated levels of physical (Tremblay et al., 2004) and social aggression (Kerig, Brown Pantenaude, 2001). Parental divorce may be associated with more frequent interparental conflict, which may in turn model negative conflict strategies or harm the parent-child relationship. Children in single-parent homes characterized by high conflict and triangulation engage in higher levels of socially aggressive behavior (Kerig et al., 2001). Parenting styles Parenting styles relate to children’s involvement in both social and physical aggression (Cot?et al., 2007; Kawataba, Alink, Tseng, van Ijzendoorn Crick, 2011; Olsen, LopezDuran, Lunkenheimer, Chang Sameroff, 2011; Sandstrom, 2007; Underwood et al., 2009). Authoritarian parenting, characterized by harsh and intrusive behaviors in conjunction with a lack of warmth and positivity, may put children at greater risk for involvement in aggressive behavior by modeling coercive and power-asserting techniques toAggress Behav. Velpatasvir web Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 September 01.Ehrenreich et al.Pagechildren who may in turn view these behaviors as effective with peers (Ladd Pettit, 2002). In a recent meta-analysis, negative and harsh maternal parenting behavior was correlated with relational aggression for both boys and girls, though effect sizes were uniformly small (Kawataba et al., 2011). Authoritarian parenting is also a predictor of overt and physical aggression, as are PNB-0408 site specific practices associated with this style (Kawabata et al., 2011). In the SECCYD study following children from ages 8 ?11, mother-child conflict in early childhood predicted higher relational aggression in grade 3 for both genders, and for girls only, observed maternal harsh control was a positive predictor of relational aggression, and observed maternal sensitivity was a negative predictor (Spieker et al., 2012). The permissive parenting style, characterized by warmth with low or inconsistent demands placed on the child, is also associated with behavior problems and aggression. Permissive parenting predicted relational aggression in girls in a study with 4th grade children (Sandstrom, 2007). Furthermore, Kawataba et al’s. (2011) meta-analysis found that lax, uninvolved maternal parenting was correlated with relational aggression and this relation was not moderated by gender. Permissive parenting also predicts overt forms of aggression (Sandstrom, 2007). Permissive parenting may be negatively reinforced by aggressive behavior, as parents give up their attempts to control their children’s behavior to avoid aversive interactions with that child. This may in turn reinforce aggressive behavior as an effective form of peer interaction (Loeber Dishion, 1984; Patterson, DeBaryshe Ramsey, 1990). In an investigation of earlier waves of the same sample presented in this study in grades 3rd through 7th, maternal permissiveness predicted membership in the moderate-increasing joint trajectory group for social and physical aggression (Underwood et al., 2009). Interparental conflict strategies Another important predictor of children’s aggression is how parents behave in conflicts with their spouse. Children and adolescents who are exposed to frequent interparental conflict (IPC) are at greater risk of delinquency and aggression (Cummings, Goeke-Morey Papp, 2004; Li, Putallaz Su, 2011; Marcus, Lindahl Malik, 2001; Underwo.Nderwood et al., 2009; Vaillancourt et al., 2007). Children with separated or divorced parents engage in elevated levels of physical (Tremblay et al., 2004) and social aggression (Kerig, Brown Pantenaude, 2001). Parental divorce may be associated with more frequent interparental conflict, which may in turn model negative conflict strategies or harm the parent-child relationship. Children in single-parent homes characterized by high conflict and triangulation engage in higher levels of socially aggressive behavior (Kerig et al., 2001). Parenting styles Parenting styles relate to children’s involvement in both social and physical aggression (Cot?et al., 2007; Kawataba, Alink, Tseng, van Ijzendoorn Crick, 2011; Olsen, LopezDuran, Lunkenheimer, Chang Sameroff, 2011; Sandstrom, 2007; Underwood et al., 2009). Authoritarian parenting, characterized by harsh and intrusive behaviors in conjunction with a lack of warmth and positivity, may put children at greater risk for involvement in aggressive behavior by modeling coercive and power-asserting techniques toAggress Behav. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 September 01.Ehrenreich et al.Pagechildren who may in turn view these behaviors as effective with peers (Ladd Pettit, 2002). In a recent meta-analysis, negative and harsh maternal parenting behavior was correlated with relational aggression for both boys and girls, though effect sizes were uniformly small (Kawataba et al., 2011). Authoritarian parenting is also a predictor of overt and physical aggression, as are specific practices associated with this style (Kawabata et al., 2011). In the SECCYD study following children from ages 8 ?11, mother-child conflict in early childhood predicted higher relational aggression in grade 3 for both genders, and for girls only, observed maternal harsh control was a positive predictor of relational aggression, and observed maternal sensitivity was a negative predictor (Spieker et al., 2012). The permissive parenting style, characterized by warmth with low or inconsistent demands placed on the child, is also associated with behavior problems and aggression. Permissive parenting predicted relational aggression in girls in a study with 4th grade children (Sandstrom, 2007). Furthermore, Kawataba et al’s. (2011) meta-analysis found that lax, uninvolved maternal parenting was correlated with relational aggression and this relation was not moderated by gender. Permissive parenting also predicts overt forms of aggression (Sandstrom, 2007). Permissive parenting may be negatively reinforced by aggressive behavior, as parents give up their attempts to control their children’s behavior to avoid aversive interactions with that child. This may in turn reinforce aggressive behavior as an effective form of peer interaction (Loeber Dishion, 1984; Patterson, DeBaryshe Ramsey, 1990). In an investigation of earlier waves of the same sample presented in this study in grades 3rd through 7th, maternal permissiveness predicted membership in the moderate-increasing joint trajectory group for social and physical aggression (Underwood et al., 2009). Interparental conflict strategies Another important predictor of children’s aggression is how parents behave in conflicts with their spouse. Children and adolescents who are exposed to frequent interparental conflict (IPC) are at greater risk of delinquency and aggression (Cummings, Goeke-Morey Papp, 2004; Li, Putallaz Su, 2011; Marcus, Lindahl Malik, 2001; Underwo.