Mon. Jul 15th, 2024

Ert. With the loop sequence of TATCGC added, the DNA sequences for shRNA of nNOS therefore were GAGCTATCGGCTTTAAGAAATtatcgcATTTCTTAAAG CCGATAGCTCTTTTTgaattcc. A mouse U6 promoter was also cloned into the modified pFBGR plasmid (Gene Transfer Vector Core, University of Iowa) with downstream PmeI and EcoRI restriction sites. The sense (modified at 5 phosphate) and the antisense oligonucleotides for the shRNA construct were synthesized as two complementary DNA sequences by Integrated DNA Technologies (Coralville, IA, USA), annealed in equimolar amounts, cut by EcoRI, ligated between PmeI and EcoRI site and then cloned to the plasmid. The vector also contained humanized renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) with a CMV promoter. The AAV2nNOSshRNA vectors were then prepared by a triple baculovirus infection in SF-9 insect cells by The Gene Transfer Vector Core, The University of Iowa as described above. The titre of AAV2nNOSshRNA was 5.9?012 viral genomes per ml.Cell cultureFor RT-PCR and Western blot analysis of nNOS expression in vivo, rats were anaesthetized with isoflurane (5 induction and 2 maintenance) delivered by nasal cone in 100 O2 , and were TAPI-2 chemical information bilaterally injected with AAV2nNOSshRNA (individual increments of 25?0 nl to a combined total of 200 nl) into the NTS (0.4 mm rostral to the calamus scriptorius, 0.5 mm from the midline, and 0.5 mm below the surface of the brainstem at the level of the area postrema) (Nayate et al. 2008) and were killed with an overdose of pentobarbital (150 mg kg-1 ) 2 weeks later. The NTS from each rat was dissected with stainless steel tubing (inner diameter of 0.96 mm) from six consecutive 150 m frozen medullary transverse sections that had been cut with a cryostat. The tissue punches were stored at -20 C until they were used for Western blot analysis or placed in cold RNAlater (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA, USA) overnight and then stored at -20 C for real time RT-PCR. In some animals injections of AAV2nNOSshRNA or PBS were made EPZ004777 biological activity unilaterally for subsequent immunofluorescent analysis of nNOS.Real time RT-PCRHuman embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were used to examine the efficiency of recombinant AAV2 plasmid that contained nNOS shRNA (AAVp-nNOSshRNA). HEK293 cells were purchased from ATCF (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA, USA) and grown in six-well plates in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium and supplements with heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and antibiotics. Because HEK does notCReal time reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess nNOS mRNA in rat NTS after transduction with AAV2nNOSshRNA as described in our earlier publication (Lin et al. 2011). Following extraction with TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), RNA of NTS was prepared using the RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen). RNA concentrations were determined using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific, Wilmington, MA, USA). Reverse transcription using 300 ng RNA for each sample was performed according to methods described in an earlier publication (Chu et al. 2002). We performed real time RT-PCR in a 96-well plate with identical amounts of reverse transcription product using nNOS TaqMan Expression Assays and eNOS TaqMan Expression Assays purchased from Applied Biosystems (Carlsbad, CA, USA). These kits contain probes and primers for real time RT-PCR for nNOS and eNOS. RT-PCR for actin (Rat ACTB Endogenous Control, Applied Biosystems) was used as an endogenous reference cont.Ert. With the loop sequence of TATCGC added, the DNA sequences for shRNA of nNOS therefore were GAGCTATCGGCTTTAAGAAATtatcgcATTTCTTAAAG CCGATAGCTCTTTTTgaattcc. A mouse U6 promoter was also cloned into the modified pFBGR plasmid (Gene Transfer Vector Core, University of Iowa) with downstream PmeI and EcoRI restriction sites. The sense (modified at 5 phosphate) and the antisense oligonucleotides for the shRNA construct were synthesized as two complementary DNA sequences by Integrated DNA Technologies (Coralville, IA, USA), annealed in equimolar amounts, cut by EcoRI, ligated between PmeI and EcoRI site and then cloned to the plasmid. The vector also contained humanized renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) with a CMV promoter. The AAV2nNOSshRNA vectors were then prepared by a triple baculovirus infection in SF-9 insect cells by The Gene Transfer Vector Core, The University of Iowa as described above. The titre of AAV2nNOSshRNA was 5.9?012 viral genomes per ml.Cell cultureFor RT-PCR and Western blot analysis of nNOS expression in vivo, rats were anaesthetized with isoflurane (5 induction and 2 maintenance) delivered by nasal cone in 100 O2 , and were bilaterally injected with AAV2nNOSshRNA (individual increments of 25?0 nl to a combined total of 200 nl) into the NTS (0.4 mm rostral to the calamus scriptorius, 0.5 mm from the midline, and 0.5 mm below the surface of the brainstem at the level of the area postrema) (Nayate et al. 2008) and were killed with an overdose of pentobarbital (150 mg kg-1 ) 2 weeks later. The NTS from each rat was dissected with stainless steel tubing (inner diameter of 0.96 mm) from six consecutive 150 m frozen medullary transverse sections that had been cut with a cryostat. The tissue punches were stored at -20 C until they were used for Western blot analysis or placed in cold RNAlater (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA, USA) overnight and then stored at -20 C for real time RT-PCR. In some animals injections of AAV2nNOSshRNA or PBS were made unilaterally for subsequent immunofluorescent analysis of nNOS.Real time RT-PCRHuman embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were used to examine the efficiency of recombinant AAV2 plasmid that contained nNOS shRNA (AAVp-nNOSshRNA). HEK293 cells were purchased from ATCF (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA, USA) and grown in six-well plates in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium and supplements with heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and antibiotics. Because HEK does notCReal time reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess nNOS mRNA in rat NTS after transduction with AAV2nNOSshRNA as described in our earlier publication (Lin et al. 2011). Following extraction with TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), RNA of NTS was prepared using the RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen). RNA concentrations were determined using a NanoDrop spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific, Wilmington, MA, USA). Reverse transcription using 300 ng RNA for each sample was performed according to methods described in an earlier publication (Chu et al. 2002). We performed real time RT-PCR in a 96-well plate with identical amounts of reverse transcription product using nNOS TaqMan Expression Assays and eNOS TaqMan Expression Assays purchased from Applied Biosystems (Carlsbad, CA, USA). These kits contain probes and primers for real time RT-PCR for nNOS and eNOS. RT-PCR for actin (Rat ACTB Endogenous Control, Applied Biosystems) was used as an endogenous reference cont.