Of the cholesterol decrease in men and 60 of the decrease in

Of the cholesterol order MK-886 decrease in men and 60 of the decrease in women, with reductions in dietary saturated fat as the main explanatory factor (47 in men and 41 in women) (Valsta et al, 2010) The impact of lipid-lowering medication on observed cholesterol levels was found to be less important, at 16 among men, and 7 among women. Such comprehensive, long-term population studies are rare and there is a need for more such studies to support epidemiological findings and prior short-term, risk factor intervention trials. Illustrating the potential of this approach for age-related diseases, some long-lived populations, such as the Japanese, already appear to be delaying typical age-related morbidity and have achieved a significantly longer life expectancy and much lower rates of disability than many western nations such as the US. (US Burden of Disease Collaborators et al., 2013; Ikeda et al 2011; Willcox et al, 2013). Such populations (or sub-populations) tend also to have higher numbers of oldest-old or long-lived individuals, such as nonagenarians or centenarians. The most remarkable of these populations have been referred to as “Blue Zones”, a concept that refers to a demographic and/or geographic area with high population longevity and originating from the blue color on demographic maps (Poulain et al. 2004; Appel, 2008). There is even some preliminary evidence that the “Blue Zones” share some common healthy eating patterns (Davinelli et al. 2012; Appel 2008). This is encouraging. The fact that the Japanese went from longevity laggards (low average life expectancy at birth) in the first half of the 20th century to longevity leaders in the second half (world’s longest lifespan and healthspan) is due, in large part, to focused investment in public health infrastructure and programs and a better educated population (Ikeda et al. 2011; Mori et al. 2012; Sugiura et al. 2010; US Burden of Disease Collaborators et al. 2013; Willcox et al, 2013). This buttresses belief in the “art of the possible.” That is, through broad public health efforts that engage major stakeholders, including industry and government, weMech Ageing Dev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 April 24.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptWillcox et al.Pagecan educate, promote and BUdR web implement healthy lifestyle habits in places that have major community health impacts, such schools and workplaces. By doing so we might substantially expand the “Blue Zones”.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptReducing Risk Factors, Improving Biomarkers: The Potential of Dietary TherapyDietary knowledge has evolved substantially over the past few decades from calories, macronutrients and micronutrients to exploring the pharmaceutical or “nutraceutical” effects of particular foods and food components. A whole research and commercial industry has sprung up around the concept of “functional foods”, some of which might be as efficacious as commonly prescribed medications for ameliorating some medical conditions. For example, various foods, such as soy protein, fiber (ie.oat bran) and plant sterols can have an additive LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect and substantially attenuate risk for CHD (Jenkins et al. 2005). Direct comparison of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods versus pharmacotherapy in hypercholesterolemic patients has revealed that this dietary approach can be as effective as first generation stati.Of the cholesterol decrease in men and 60 of the decrease in women, with reductions in dietary saturated fat as the main explanatory factor (47 in men and 41 in women) (Valsta et al, 2010) The impact of lipid-lowering medication on observed cholesterol levels was found to be less important, at 16 among men, and 7 among women. Such comprehensive, long-term population studies are rare and there is a need for more such studies to support epidemiological findings and prior short-term, risk factor intervention trials. Illustrating the potential of this approach for age-related diseases, some long-lived populations, such as the Japanese, already appear to be delaying typical age-related morbidity and have achieved a significantly longer life expectancy and much lower rates of disability than many western nations such as the US. (US Burden of Disease Collaborators et al., 2013; Ikeda et al 2011; Willcox et al, 2013). Such populations (or sub-populations) tend also to have higher numbers of oldest-old or long-lived individuals, such as nonagenarians or centenarians. The most remarkable of these populations have been referred to as “Blue Zones”, a concept that refers to a demographic and/or geographic area with high population longevity and originating from the blue color on demographic maps (Poulain et al. 2004; Appel, 2008). There is even some preliminary evidence that the “Blue Zones” share some common healthy eating patterns (Davinelli et al. 2012; Appel 2008). This is encouraging. The fact that the Japanese went from longevity laggards (low average life expectancy at birth) in the first half of the 20th century to longevity leaders in the second half (world’s longest lifespan and healthspan) is due, in large part, to focused investment in public health infrastructure and programs and a better educated population (Ikeda et al. 2011; Mori et al. 2012; Sugiura et al. 2010; US Burden of Disease Collaborators et al. 2013; Willcox et al, 2013). This buttresses belief in the “art of the possible.” That is, through broad public health efforts that engage major stakeholders, including industry and government, weMech Ageing Dev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 April 24.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptWillcox et al.Pagecan educate, promote and implement healthy lifestyle habits in places that have major community health impacts, such schools and workplaces. By doing so we might substantially expand the “Blue Zones”.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptReducing Risk Factors, Improving Biomarkers: The Potential of Dietary TherapyDietary knowledge has evolved substantially over the past few decades from calories, macronutrients and micronutrients to exploring the pharmaceutical or “nutraceutical” effects of particular foods and food components. A whole research and commercial industry has sprung up around the concept of “functional foods”, some of which might be as efficacious as commonly prescribed medications for ameliorating some medical conditions. For example, various foods, such as soy protein, fiber (ie.oat bran) and plant sterols can have an additive LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect and substantially attenuate risk for CHD (Jenkins et al. 2005). Direct comparison of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods versus pharmacotherapy in hypercholesterolemic patients has revealed that this dietary approach can be as effective as first generation stati.

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