Both P,0.001) (Figure 4B). Similar to the stably suppressed CTGF expression

Both P,0.001) (Figure 4B). Similar to the stably suppressed CTGF Pleuromutilin web Expression results, suppressing CTGF expression using siRNACTGF also facilitated cell migration and invasion in 6?0B and HONE1 cells (Figure 4C, D).CTGF Controls the Expression of Cell Cycle, MMPs, and EMT-associated Genes in NPCTo further study the mechanism by which CTGF regulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, we examined protein levels of cell cycle, MMP, and EMT-associated genes in NPC 6?0B cells with stably suppressed CTGF expression. Knocking down endogenous CTGF expression AKT inhibitor 2 elevated the activiation of pRB(ser 780), an oncogenic cell cycle regulator including CCND1 and E2F1, and suppressed the expression of tumor suppressors including p15 and p21. However, the expression of CDK4 and CDK6 were not affected (Figure 5A). Further, we found that suppressing CTGF expression increased the expression of MMP2, MMP9 and EMT-marker genes including Snail, N-cadherin, and Vimentin and decreased E-cadherin expression (Figure 5B).CTGF in NPCFigure 4. Stably or transiently inhibited CTGF expression increases cell migration and invasion. A. Stably downregulating CTGF enhanced the migration ability of 6?0B shRNA-CTGF-A and B cells in vitro. B. Stably suppressed CTGF elevated in vitro invasiveness of 6?0B shRNACTGF-A and B cells. C. Transiently downregulated 16985061 CTGF dramatically enhanced the ability of 6?0B and HONE1 cells migration in vitro. D. Transiently suppressed CTGF elevated in vitro invasiveness of 6?0B and HONE1 cells. One-way ANOVA was used to determine the differences between two groups. (Original magnification 2006). Data were presented as mean6SD for three independent experiments (*p,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064976.gCTGF in NPCFigure 5. CTGF controls the expression of cell cycle, MMP, and EMT-associated genes in NPC via FAK/PI3K/AKT pathway. A. Knocking down endogenous CTGF expression elevated the expression of pRB(ser 780), oncogenic cell cycle regulators including CCND1, and E2F1, and suppressed the expression of tumor suppressors including p15 and p21. However, CDK4 and CDK6 were not affected. B. Suppressing CTGF expression increased the expression of MMP2, MMP9 and EMT-marker genes including Snail, N-cadherin, and Vimentin and decreased E-cadherin expression. C.Reduced CTGF expression induced the expression of phos-FAK, PI3K, and AKT, but not their total protein levels. Each experiment was repeated three times. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064976.gCTGF suppression did not lead to any change from epithelial to mesenchymal morphology transition in NPC 6?0B cells (Figure S2).CTGF Regulates FAK/PI3K/AKT PathwayFAK/PI3K/AKT has been reported as upstream signal modulating cell cycle, EMT, and MMPs signals. We examined the effect of CTGF on FAK/PI3K/AKT pathway and found that reduced CTGF significantly increased the expression of phosphorylated FAK, PI3K and AKT, but not their total protein levels (Figure 5C). These results suggested that CTGF is an upstream factor modulating the FAK/PI3K/AKT pathway in NPC.CTGF Promoter Lacks Methylation in NPCFigure 6. Methylation of CTGF promoter was not observed in NPC samples. Using a NimbleGen DNA methylation microarray containing CTGF, we did not detect a significant methylation change in CTGF promoter region in 17 primary NPC samples and 3 NPs. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064976.gDue to a bioinformatics-predicted CpG island in the CTGF promoter, we tested whether hypermethylation of CTGF might result in the suppressed e.Both P,0.001) (Figure 4B). Similar to the stably suppressed CTGF expression results, suppressing CTGF expression using siRNACTGF also facilitated cell migration and invasion in 6?0B and HONE1 cells (Figure 4C, D).CTGF Controls the Expression of Cell Cycle, MMPs, and EMT-associated Genes in NPCTo further study the mechanism by which CTGF regulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, we examined protein levels of cell cycle, MMP, and EMT-associated genes in NPC 6?0B cells with stably suppressed CTGF expression. Knocking down endogenous CTGF expression elevated the activiation of pRB(ser 780), an oncogenic cell cycle regulator including CCND1 and E2F1, and suppressed the expression of tumor suppressors including p15 and p21. However, the expression of CDK4 and CDK6 were not affected (Figure 5A). Further, we found that suppressing CTGF expression increased the expression of MMP2, MMP9 and EMT-marker genes including Snail, N-cadherin, and Vimentin and decreased E-cadherin expression (Figure 5B).CTGF in NPCFigure 4. Stably or transiently inhibited CTGF expression increases cell migration and invasion. A. Stably downregulating CTGF enhanced the migration ability of 6?0B shRNA-CTGF-A and B cells in vitro. B. Stably suppressed CTGF elevated in vitro invasiveness of 6?0B shRNACTGF-A and B cells. C. Transiently downregulated 16985061 CTGF dramatically enhanced the ability of 6?0B and HONE1 cells migration in vitro. D. Transiently suppressed CTGF elevated in vitro invasiveness of 6?0B and HONE1 cells. One-way ANOVA was used to determine the differences between two groups. (Original magnification 2006). Data were presented as mean6SD for three independent experiments (*p,0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064976.gCTGF in NPCFigure 5. CTGF controls the expression of cell cycle, MMP, and EMT-associated genes in NPC via FAK/PI3K/AKT pathway. A. Knocking down endogenous CTGF expression elevated the expression of pRB(ser 780), oncogenic cell cycle regulators including CCND1, and E2F1, and suppressed the expression of tumor suppressors including p15 and p21. However, CDK4 and CDK6 were not affected. B. Suppressing CTGF expression increased the expression of MMP2, MMP9 and EMT-marker genes including Snail, N-cadherin, and Vimentin and decreased E-cadherin expression. C.Reduced CTGF expression induced the expression of phos-FAK, PI3K, and AKT, but not their total protein levels. Each experiment was repeated three times. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064976.gCTGF suppression did not lead to any change from epithelial to mesenchymal morphology transition in NPC 6?0B cells (Figure S2).CTGF Regulates FAK/PI3K/AKT PathwayFAK/PI3K/AKT has been reported as upstream signal modulating cell cycle, EMT, and MMPs signals. We examined the effect of CTGF on FAK/PI3K/AKT pathway and found that reduced CTGF significantly increased the expression of phosphorylated FAK, PI3K and AKT, but not their total protein levels (Figure 5C). These results suggested that CTGF is an upstream factor modulating the FAK/PI3K/AKT pathway in NPC.CTGF Promoter Lacks Methylation in NPCFigure 6. Methylation of CTGF promoter was not observed in NPC samples. Using a NimbleGen DNA methylation microarray containing CTGF, we did not detect a significant methylation change in CTGF promoter region in 17 primary NPC samples and 3 NPs. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064976.gDue to a bioinformatics-predicted CpG island in the CTGF promoter, we tested whether hypermethylation of CTGF might result in the suppressed e.

Leave a Comment