Ining Fpn1 transcripts (Fpn1A and Fpn1B in Figure 3C

Ining Fpn1 transcripts (Fpn1A and Fpn1B in Figure 3C). Moreover, as Fpn1 is mainly regulated at post-transcriptional level by the hepatic hormone Hepc, the level of Hepc expression in the liver has been assessed. As shown in Figure 3D, Hepc expression did not result altered in Hx-null mice when compared to controls. Consistently with mRNA data, DMT1 and Fpn1 protein expression was similar in Hx-null and wild-type duodenum (Figure 3E). Interestingly, TfR1 protein showed a similar abundance in Hx-null and wildtype mice (Figure 3E), in contrast with the results obtained by measuring TfR1 transcript level.ResultsHx deficiency results in increased iron deposits in the duodenumTo assess the role of Hx in the iron absorption, iron content in duodenum and peripheral tissues of Hx-null and wild-type mice was evaluated by means of three different modalities. First, duodenal iron content was determined by the BPSbased colorimetric method. A significant iron accumulation was detected in the duodenum of Hx-null mice compared to agematched wild-type controls (Table 1), whereas liver, spleen, kidney and serum iron levels were comparable in the two Selected to determine whether the differentially expressed genes were associated with groups of mice [17]. Duodenal iron content was similar in 2 and 6 month-old Hx-null mice. This observation supports the view that the detected amount of iron likely MedChemExpress ��-Sitosterol ��-D-glucoside represents the maximal iron capacity of duodenal mucosa, a tissue with a rapid turnover. The increased iron content in the duodenum of Hxnull mice was confirmed by ICP-MS measurements (Figure 1A). Furthermore, iron staining by DAB enhanced Perls’ reaction on tissue sections clearly showed higher iron deposits in Hx-null mice duodenum than in wild-type controls (Figure 1B). Iron loading in Hx-null animals was associated with an increase in H-ferritin (H-Ft) expression in duodenal enterocytes (Figure 2A, B), whereas L-Ft level did not show a significant change (Figure 2C).Hx deficiency results in enhanced heme catabolism in duodenum without an increased expression of duodenal heme transportersAs duodenal iron deposits in Hx-null mice could derive from altered heme catabolism and/or heme trafficking in enterocytes, the activity and expression of HO as well as the expression of heme transportes were evaluated. HO activity was higher in the duodenum of Hx-null mice than in that of wild-type animals (Figure 4A). Western blot analysis on total duodenal lysates did not show differences in the expression of both HO-1 and HO-2 between Hx-null and wildtype mice (Figures 4B and S2A). Nevertheless, immunohistochemistry on duodenal sections showed an increased expression of HO-1 in duodenal villi of Hx-null mice (Figure 4B). In these animals, HO-1 immunoreactivity yielded a strong, continuous signal along the villi. At cellular level, HO-1 expression appeared higher in the apical cytoplasm of enterocytes, and decreased along their apical-basal axis (shown at high magnification in Figure 4B). On the contrary, in wild-type animals, the HO-1-positive signal along the villi appeared weaker and discontinuous whereas the subcellular pattern of expression was similar to that observed for Hx-null mice. As expected for a constitutive isoform, the HO-2 signal was similar in Hx-null and wild-type mice (Figure S2B). To assess whether the increased heme catabolism in the duodenum of Hx-null mice could be associated to an altered heme import from the intestinal lumen or to an altered export to plasma, it was decided to analyze the expression of PCFT/ HCP1 and FLVCR1, the mo.Ining Fpn1 transcripts (Fpn1A and Fpn1B in Figure 3C). Moreover, as Fpn1 is mainly regulated at post-transcriptional level by the hepatic hormone Hepc, the level of Hepc expression in the liver has been assessed. As shown in Figure 3D, Hepc expression did not result altered in Hx-null mice when compared to controls. Consistently with mRNA data, DMT1 and Fpn1 protein expression was similar in Hx-null and wild-type duodenum (Figure 3E). Interestingly, TfR1 protein showed a similar abundance in Hx-null and wildtype mice (Figure 3E), in contrast with the results obtained by measuring TfR1 transcript level.ResultsHx deficiency results in increased iron deposits in the duodenumTo assess the role of Hx in the iron absorption, iron content in duodenum and peripheral tissues of Hx-null and wild-type mice was evaluated by means of three different modalities. First, duodenal iron content was determined by the BPSbased colorimetric method. A significant iron accumulation was detected in the duodenum of Hx-null mice compared to agematched wild-type controls (Table 1), whereas liver, spleen, kidney and serum iron levels were comparable in the two groups of mice [17]. Duodenal iron content was similar in 2 and 6 month-old Hx-null mice. This observation supports the view that the detected amount of iron likely represents the maximal iron capacity of duodenal mucosa, a tissue with a rapid turnover. The increased iron content in the duodenum of Hxnull mice was confirmed by ICP-MS measurements (Figure 1A). Furthermore, iron staining by DAB enhanced Perls’ reaction on tissue sections clearly showed higher iron deposits in Hx-null mice duodenum than in wild-type controls (Figure 1B). Iron loading in Hx-null animals was associated with an increase in H-ferritin (H-Ft) expression in duodenal enterocytes (Figure 2A, B), whereas L-Ft level did not show a significant change (Figure 2C).Hx deficiency results in enhanced heme catabolism in duodenum without an increased expression of duodenal heme transportersAs duodenal iron deposits in Hx-null mice could derive from altered heme catabolism and/or heme trafficking in enterocytes, the activity and expression of HO as well as the expression of heme transportes were evaluated. HO activity was higher in the duodenum of Hx-null mice than in that of wild-type animals (Figure 4A). Western blot analysis on total duodenal lysates did not show differences in the expression of both HO-1 and HO-2 between Hx-null and wildtype mice (Figures 4B and S2A). Nevertheless, immunohistochemistry on duodenal sections showed an increased expression of HO-1 in duodenal villi of Hx-null mice (Figure 4B). In these animals, HO-1 immunoreactivity yielded a strong, continuous signal along the villi. At cellular level, HO-1 expression appeared higher in the apical cytoplasm of enterocytes, and decreased along their apical-basal axis (shown at high magnification in Figure 4B). On the contrary, in wild-type animals, the HO-1-positive signal along the villi appeared weaker and discontinuous whereas the subcellular pattern of expression was similar to that observed for Hx-null mice. As expected for a constitutive isoform, the HO-2 signal was similar in Hx-null and wild-type mice (Figure S2B). To assess whether the increased heme catabolism in the duodenum of Hx-null mice could be associated to an altered heme import from the intestinal lumen or to an altered export to plasma, it was decided to analyze the expression of PCFT/ HCP1 and FLVCR1, the mo.

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