In the scenario of Ives Street Fen, Abbas predicted that in addition to nearby recharge, the fen also obtained drinking water from the regional Hillsdale groundwater mound, TG-02virtually twenty kilometers absent.Even though Abbas’ tactic was facts-driven, this study makes use of a additional arduous, coupled geologic modeling and process-based mostly groundwater modeling approach to quantitatively recognize the groundwater hydrology of Ives Highway Fen in southern Michigan. Exclusively, we one) delineate the source water areas for the fen, two) recognize the corresponding drinking water shipping mechanisms to the fen, three) assess the implications of the findings on management of these fens and 4) estimate the future perform necessary to even more the knowing from this analyze.Ives Street Fen is adjacent to two surface h2o bodies—the River Raisin to its east and a modest pond to its northwest. The distance involving the pond and the River Raisin is about five hundred meters, but the big difference in their area h2o elevations is practically five meters. As a outcome, the land surface slopes absent rather steeply from the pond in the direction of the river, with Ives Street Fen located among the surface area drinking water bodies. Thanks to this slope, there is no ponding of drinking water at the fen spot, as any overland circulation that may well enter the fen operates off in the direction of the River Raisin. At the regional scale, the topography slopes carefully towards River Raisin from the Hillsdale mound as noticed in Figs 2 and 3. Normally, in these kinds of areas where there is a common topographic slope with comparatively negligible neighborhood topographic relief, regional groundwater movement programs develop. Apart from River Raisin, there are no other big surface h2o bodies in the vicinity of the fen. The closest substantial lakes are just about sixteen kilometers absent to the west of the fen at the northeastern edge of the Hillsdale groundwater mound. The shallow glacial geology in a slender band along River Raisin is made up of coarse-grained deposits developed by a glacial outwash channel. Less than this very well-sorted product, more mature good-grained clay-like components are identified. Evidence for this is witnessed in the properly logs from the statewide water properly databases, Wellogic. At the regional scale, the shallow outwash aquifer is bordered on its west by a series of moraines and till plains composed of medium- and wonderful-textured tills. Even further west is Hillsdale mound, a massive glacial interlobate location composed of outwash product. The borehole information show that there is a rather thick and substantial clay layer in the until basic, beneath which a confined aquifer is located. From the borehole data we can also infer that there may possibly be openings in the clay layer in the vicinity of the River Raisin brought about by erosional processes of the river. These openings connect the reduced confined aquifer to the shallow outwash aquifer adjacent to the River Raisin. The further bedrock unit in this region is the Coldwater Shale formation, which is a confining unit and can be assumed to be a no-stream boundary.Resminostat The complex geologic surroundings in this region requirements to be fixed with as considerably detail as feasible in get to comprehend its effect on the fen’s hydrology. In buy to attain the study objectives, a coupled geologic modeling and hierarchical, multi-scale groundwater modeling method was used to comprehend the multi-scale groundwater stream process. To product the sophisticated, three-dimensional geology in the place of interest, a Transition Probability approach was employed.