Design protocol was optimized to select a minimal number of 40 mer

Design protocol was optimized to select a minimal number of 40 mer probes and retain three probes per viroid to reach a balance of probe efficiency and detection specificity. In the sensitivity test of the microarray, an RNA dilution of 1:10 was detected by microarray. While the microarray showed a negative result for the dilution of 1:100, a weak signal of 1:100 dilution was detected using RT-PCR. Thus refinement of the microarray amplification procedure is needed to increase the sensitivity of detection in the future. 14 standard viroid samples from 7 genera were collected to validate the performance of the microarray. 13 out of 14 samples wereMicroarray Detection of ViroidsNo. of All ProbesNo. of Positive Probes??????????yellow leaf curl symptomRelative SignalSpecies prediction scoreRankHop stunt viroidSpeciesRelative SignalFigure 3. Microarray hybridization pseudo-color image of the infected citrus sample. Eight probes were designed for Hostuviroid and spotted on the microarray in triplicate. These probes are highlighted on the image. Seven out of the eight Hostuviroid probes were positive. Hop stunt viroid was predicted as the major pathogen of the infected citrus sample. No other viroid probe was positive on the microarray. HEX, positive control (PC) and negative control (NC) are marked on the image. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064474.gNo. of All ProbesNo. of Positive Probessuccessfully identified at the genus level, with a detection accuracy of 92.9 . The probes were designed matching the most conserved region in a genus to Arg8-vasopressin maximize the coverage of the viroid species. Because of the short genome sequence and large sequence variation of viroids, probes only detecting viroids at the species level were included in order to improve the probe coverage. This enabled the detection of viroids to the species level by using a species specific combination of probes. Using the standard viroid samples, 12 out of 14 samples were accurately identified at the species level, with an accuracy of 85.7 . In the sample infected with Tomato planta macho viroid, Citrus exocortis viroid was predicted as the disease causing pathogen. Tomato planta macho viroid and Citrus exocortis viroid are from the same genus, Pospiviroid. The false prediction in the species level was due to shared probes between these two species. In the future, including more species specific probes may increase the accuracy of the microarray at the species level. The viroid screening of field samples using our microarray was particularly interesting. No positive probes were identified in the microarray screening of infected tomato and chrysanthemum samples. These samples might be infected by plant viruses. A combination of plant virus microarray [54] and viroid microarray may improve the success of pathogen screening. In the infected citrus sample, Hop stunt viroid was detected as the major infectious pathogen, which was consistent with a traditional RT-PCR test [25]. This highlights the usefulness of microarrays in detecting viroid pathogens in field plants. In conclusion, we have developed a 40 mer oligonucleotide microarray for the detection and identification of all 8 Indolactam V chemical information reported plant viroid genera and 36 out of 37 reported species. This microarray detected the largest number of plant viroids reported so far. A minimalGenus prediction scoreRankTable 5. Microarray screening of field samples with disease symptoms.HostuviroidGenusbark scalingyellow and stunt symptom doi:10.1371/journal.Design protocol was optimized to select a minimal number of 40 mer probes and retain three probes per viroid to reach a balance of probe efficiency and detection specificity. In the sensitivity test of the microarray, an RNA dilution of 1:10 was detected by microarray. While the microarray showed a negative result for the dilution of 1:100, a weak signal of 1:100 dilution was detected using RT-PCR. Thus refinement of the microarray amplification procedure is needed to increase the sensitivity of detection in the future. 14 standard viroid samples from 7 genera were collected to validate the performance of the microarray. 13 out of 14 samples wereMicroarray Detection of ViroidsNo. of All ProbesNo. of Positive Probes??????????yellow leaf curl symptomRelative SignalSpecies prediction scoreRankHop stunt viroidSpeciesRelative SignalFigure 3. Microarray hybridization pseudo-color image of the infected citrus sample. Eight probes were designed for Hostuviroid and spotted on the microarray in triplicate. These probes are highlighted on the image. Seven out of the eight Hostuviroid probes were positive. Hop stunt viroid was predicted as the major pathogen of the infected citrus sample. No other viroid probe was positive on the microarray. HEX, positive control (PC) and negative control (NC) are marked on the image. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064474.gNo. of All ProbesNo. of Positive Probessuccessfully identified at the genus level, with a detection accuracy of 92.9 . The probes were designed matching the most conserved region in a genus to maximize the coverage of the viroid species. Because of the short genome sequence and large sequence variation of viroids, probes only detecting viroids at the species level were included in order to improve the probe coverage. This enabled the detection of viroids to the species level by using a species specific combination of probes. Using the standard viroid samples, 12 out of 14 samples were accurately identified at the species level, with an accuracy of 85.7 . In the sample infected with Tomato planta macho viroid, Citrus exocortis viroid was predicted as the disease causing pathogen. Tomato planta macho viroid and Citrus exocortis viroid are from the same genus, Pospiviroid. The false prediction in the species level was due to shared probes between these two species. In the future, including more species specific probes may increase the accuracy of the microarray at the species level. The viroid screening of field samples using our microarray was particularly interesting. No positive probes were identified in the microarray screening of infected tomato and chrysanthemum samples. These samples might be infected by plant viruses. A combination of plant virus microarray [54] and viroid microarray may improve the success of pathogen screening. In the infected citrus sample, Hop stunt viroid was detected as the major infectious pathogen, which was consistent with a traditional RT-PCR test [25]. This highlights the usefulness of microarrays in detecting viroid pathogens in field plants. In conclusion, we have developed a 40 mer oligonucleotide microarray for the detection and identification of all 8 reported plant viroid genera and 36 out of 37 reported species. This microarray detected the largest number of plant viroids reported so far. A minimalGenus prediction scoreRankTable 5. Microarray screening of field samples with disease symptoms.HostuviroidGenusbark scalingyellow and stunt symptom doi:10.1371/journal.

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